Conjunction of Criminal Opportunity: Research

This platform was initially developed as part of PhD research conducted at the UCL InfoSec research group. This work became part of the PhD thesis of Martin Ruskov.

Below is a list of further related publications

  • Ruskov M, Ekblom P, Sasse MA (2022) Getting Users Smart Quick about Security: Results from 90 Minutes of Using a Persuasive Toolkit for Facilitating Information Security Problem Solving by Non-Professionals. In: arXiv. (doi)
  • Ruskov M, Ekblom P, Sasse MA (2014) Towards a Simulation of Information Security Behaviour in Organisations. In: Blackwell C., Zhu H. (eds) Cyberpatterns. Springer, Cham. (pdf)
  • Ruskov M, Ekblom P, Sasse MA (2013) In Search for the Right Measure: Assessing Types of Developed Knowledge While Using a Gamified Web Toolkit. In: 7th European Conference on Games Based Learning (ECGBL 2013). (pp.722-729). Academic Conferences: Reading, UK. (pdf)
  • Ruskov M, Celdran JM, Ekblom P, Sasse MA (2012) Unlocking the Next Level of Crime Prevention: Development of a Game Prototype to Teach the Conjunction of Criminal Opportunity. In Information Technologies and Control. 10(3). (pp.15-21). (pdf)
  • Ekblom P (2011) Crime Prevention, Security and Community Safety Using the 5Is Framework. ISBN 9780230298996. (doi)
  • Ekblom P (2010) The conjunction of criminal opportunity theory. In Encyclopedia of Victimology and Crime Prevention. ISBN 9781412960472. (pp.140-146). (doi)
  • Ekblom P (2002) From the Source to the Mainstream is Uphill: The Challenge of Transferring Knowledge of Crime Prevention Through Replication, Innovation and Anticipation. In Analysis for Crime Prevention (Crime Prevention Studies 13). ISBN 1881798348. (pp.131-203). (pdf)

This platform is used for:

  • Security awareness for citizen and employees: Engaging people in 90-minutes sessions makes them understand how they - willingly or not - could be part of security threats or solutions.
  • Holistic Security training for security experts: Security professionals often are used to think about their own silo in security, be it technical or other aspects. Yet, offenders think and work beyond boundaries. This is an opportunity to see beyond daily activities.
  • Problem-Solving and Idea Generation for companies: Often companies are in need for realistic ideas for solutions. A problem-oriented focused brainstorming session could generate a lot of ideas. Even more so, when the platform provides some forms of preliminary vetting to seed out good ideas from bad ones.

This is ongoing research. We're open for opportunities for a range of collaborations. If you're interested to get involved, here are some possibilities.


Since the toolkit was initially developed, it has been used for teaching in classes on Information Security at University College London, the University of Oxford and Ruhr University Bochum, three of the leading European universities. We are interested in partnering also with other organisations for its adoption both for teaching and analysis.

Business and Other Organisations

We would appreciate any targeted collaboration on scenarios and user-generated content. We currently have 4 scenarios in use, on insiders, phishing, community safety. These contain reference user-generated content that is continuously being assessed and analysed. Furthermore, we have developed scenarios on data breach, unauthorised access, identity theft, cyberbullying that are ready to be deployed on request. We are open to further requests and development.


If you are interested to contribute, please first have a go at the using the toolkit. Then contact Martin Ruskov for further information and a opportunities to get involved.